AFR constitutes many different materials coexisting in different states. This may include hazardous or recovered wastes which can be in solid, semi liquid, liquid or even gaseous states. Exposure to individual materials or combined may lead to health risks or may be life threatening. The cement industry in particular, due to its nearly global presence and its process-inherent ad-vantages, lends itself optimally for co-processing waste derived/alternative fuels and raw materials.
This module gives an overview of how developing and implementing specialized procedures and process/risk analysis with regards to acceptance, handling, storage, pre-processing and co-processing of AFR helps to co-process it in a safe manner that can be beneficiary to the environment and humans by thermally transforming the hazardous properties into the energy and minerals needed to produce cement.